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Human ageing entails multiple changes at different levels. Some, like wrinkles or grey hair, are more visible than others. Age-related changes also make themselves felt at the functional and physiological level. By and large, most functions begin to decline linearly after reaching peak performance in the third decade of life. It is common knowledge that the ability of adults to perform physical tasks declines with age. Due to loss of muscle and bone mass, ageing is also characterized by weight loss. Though there is considerable individual variability and no two people age alike, other physiological and functional hallmarks of ageing include a gradual reduction in height, a lower metabolic rate, longer reaction times and decreased sexual activity. In women, menopause or reproductive senescence is an inevitable consequence of old age. Functional declines in kidney, pulmonary and immune functions are also frequent. A major concern of older adults is mental health since memory and cognitive impairment are associated with human ageing even in the absence of disease.
Although not all physiological changes lead to pathology, ultimately functional and physiological changes render people more susceptible to a number of diseases. Ageing has been defined as an intrinsic, inevitable and irreversible age-related process of loss of viability and increase in vulnerability. Practically any system, tissue or organ can fail because of ageing. The heart, a critical organ with little room for error or rest, is the organ that most often fails. For people over the age of 85, diseases of the heart are the major cause of death, responsible for almost 40 per cent of all deaths, followed by cancer, cerebrovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, infectious diseases and diabetes.
- Research of The Ageing Process & The Effect on The Skin
- Characteristic and proses ageing
Aging is the progressive accumulation of changes with time associated with or responsible for the ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and death which accompanies advancing age. These time-related changes are attributed to the aging process. This process may be common to all living things, for the phenomenon of aging and death is universal. If so, both aging and the rate of the aging process are under genetic control to some extent for the manifestations of aging, and life span differs between species and individual members of a species. Further, like all chemicals and chemical reactions, the manifestations of aging-which reflect chemical composition-and the rate of the aging process should be subject to environmental influences.
Aging and death of single cells then can be viewed as being due to the aging process, the changes with time and their rates of production being under genetic control but subject to modification by the environment, with death ensuing when one or more activities vital to the cell are depressed below some critical level. Similarly, aging at the multicellular level may be considered the result of the aging processes proceeding in all the cells, with environmental influences now including the effects of the aging cells on each other and the changes with time of the connective tissues. Death of multicellular life occurs because of death or dysfunction, or both, of cells involved in functions vital to the cells as a whole (e.g., functions in mammals such as those of the respiratory center or of the myocardium).
The nature of the aging process has been the subject of considerable speculation (1). Suggested possibilities include (i) encodement of aging in DNA (made manifest in a manner similar to development), (ii) progressive breakdown in accuracy in protein synthesis, (iii) crosslinkage of macromolecules, (iv) in higher organisms, “attack” of the immune system on self-antigens, and (v) free radical reaction damage. This paper is mainly limited to a discussion of the last-named possibility not only because accumulating evidence indicates that aging is largely due to free radical reaction damage but also because it shows promise of serving as a useful guide in the search for practical means of further increasing the healthy human life span.
The free radical theory of aging assumes that there is a single basic cause of aging, modified by genetic and environmental factors, and postulates that free radical reactions are involved in aging and age-related disorders. These reactions arise upon exposure to ionizing radiation, from nonenzymatic reactions, and from enzymatic reactions, particularly those of the two major energy-gaining processes employed by living things-photosynthesis and the reduction of O2 to water. They probably also arise as well in the reduction of some terminal electron acceptors employed by anaerobes: probably with NO3, possibly with CO2, and maybe with SO-. Although this theory is applicable to all life, the following comments are directed largely to mammalian aging, in which O2 is the main source of damaging free radical reactions, because of the importance attached to slowing the aging process in man.
- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Ageing
The mechanisms of skin aging classically have been divided into 2 groups: intrinsic aging, which is the natural or chronologic aging of skin, and extrinsic aging, which is influenced by physical and chemical factors. When discussing extrinsic facial aging in particular, solar radiation is the major contributor because of the extensive cumulative exposure to UV radiation over one’s lifetime. However, intrinsic or natural mechanisms also play a role in the way an individual ages, and both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms share molecular pathways. In this article, we will review several different aspects of facial aging with a focus on the mechanisms of skin aging. There are multiple theories on the mechanisms of skin aging, which include oxidative stress, loss of telomeres, mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and hormonal changes. In addition to the epidermis and dermis, changes to the subcutaneous fat, muscle, and bone of the face also contribute to an aged appearance.
- Intrinsic skin ageing factors
The greatest effect of ethnicity on ageing is primarily related to differences in pigmentation. High levels of pigmentation are protective with regard to the cumulative effects of photoageing, with African-Americans showing little cutaneous difference between exposed and unexposed sites. In addition, if sensitivity is measured in terms of skin cancer incidence, skin cancer rates between Caucasian and African-Americans indicate that pigmentation provides a 500-fold level of protection from UV radiation. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma occur almost exclusively on sun-exposed skin of light-skinned people.
African-American skin is more compacted than Caucasian skin, as well as having a higher intercellular lipid content, which may contribute to more resistance to ageing. Wrinkling in Asians has been documented to occur later and with less severity than in Caucasians, although the reason for these observations was not explored.
- Anatomical variations
Huge variations in some skin parameters have been observed with respect to the body site studied, underscoring a need to standardize study site as well as ages compared in order to obtain meaningful results. There are large differences in skin thickness with respect to body site, ranging from < 0.5 mm on the eyelids to more than 6 mm on the soles of the feet. The decrease in epidermal thickness with ageing was found to be smaller at the temple than at the volar forearm, which may be the effect of cumulative photoageing. The lipid composition of human stratum corneum displays striking regional variation in both content and compositional profile. There is a much higher proportion of sphingolipids and cholesterol in palmoplantar stratum corneum than on extensor surfaces of the extremities, abdominal or facial stratum corneum. There is also an inverse relationship between the lipid weight percentage of a particular body site and its permeability .
- Hormonal changes in cutaneous tissues
The topic of hormonal changes in skin, primarily the effect of changes of oestrogen levels in the skin of women, has been reviewed recently and comprehensively by many competent authors and will therefore not be covered here, although we have addressed this topic in other publications. Vulvar skin, however, differs from that of the bulk of cutaneous epithelium in that skin in the vulvar area derives from three different embryonic layers. The cutaneous epithelia of the mons pubis, labia and clitoris originate from the embryonic ectoderm and exhibit a keratinized, stratified structure similar to the keratinized, stratified skin at other sites. The mucosa of the vulvar vestibule originates from the embryonic ectoderm and is non-keratinized. The vagina is derived from the embryonic mesoderm and is responsive to oestrogen cycling. The morphology and the physiology of the vulva and vagina thus undergo numerous specific changes associated with hormonal changes at menopause.
- Extrinsic skin ageing factors
- Lifestyle influence
Skin is affected by ambient conditions such as temperature and humidity. An increase in skin temperature of 7–8 doubles the evaporative water loss. Low temperature stiffens skin and decreases evaporative water loss even with plenty of humidity in air, as structural proteins and lipids in the skin are critically dependent on temperature for appropriate conformation. Some medications affect the skin as well, particularly hypocholesterolemic drugs, which may induce abnormal increased desquamation. By far, however, the two greatest exogenous factors, both of which exact a heavy toll on skin, are smoking and exposure to UV light.
- Effects of smoking and nicotine
Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with elastosis in both sexes, and telangiectasia (red spots on skin) in men. Smoking causes skin damage primarily by decreasing capillary blood flow to the skin, which, in turn, creates oxygen and nutrient deprivation in cutaneous tissues. It has been shown that those who smoke have fewer collagen and elastin fibres in the dermis, which causes skin to become slack, hardened and less elastic. Smoke causes damage to collagen and elastin in lung tissue and may do so in skin as well. In addition, constriction of the vasculature by nicotine may contribute to wrinkling. A clear dose–response relationship between wrinkling and smoking has been identified, with smoking being a greater contributor to facial wrinkling than even sun exposure. Smoking was demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for premature wrinkling even when age, sun exposure and pigmentation were controlled. In addition, although hormone-replacement therapy was demonstrated to reverse wrinkling, the skin of long-time smokers did not respond. The relative risk for moderate-to-severe wrinkling for current smokers compared to that of life-long non-smokers was 2.57 with a CI of 1.83–3.06 and a P < 0.0005. Wrinkle scores were three times greater in smokers than in non-smokers, with a significant increase in the risk of wrinkles after 10 pack-years. Pack-years are calculated by multiplying the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day by the number of years the person has smoked. For example, 10 pack-years would define both as smoking one pack a day for 10 years, or two packs a day for 5 years. Smoking also increases free radical formation and is an important risk factor in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
- Exposure to UV light (photoageing)
Intrinsic changes occur in all skin as people age, including decreased turnover, chemical clearance, thickness and cellularity, thermoregulation, mechanical protection, immune responsiveness, sensory perception, sweat and sebum production and vascular reactivity. These changes represent a generalized atrophy with few structural alterations up to the age of 50, followed by slow deterioration. In contrast, solar exposure to UV light initiates a flurry of molecular and cellular responses that end with a rapid dynamic disorder.
The effects of sunlight on the skin are profound, and are estimated to account for up to 90% of visible skin ageing, particularly in those without the natural protection associated with higher levels of melanocytes in the skin. Sunlight is composed of three different types of radiation: UVC, UVB and UVA. UVC (100–290 nm) is largely blocked by the ozone layer and has little impact on skin. UVB (290–320 nm) penetrates only into the epidermis and is responsible for the erythema associated with a sunburn. UVA requires 1000-fold higher levels of radiation to cause sunburn, so it was long considered irrelevant to skin damage. It is now known that because it penetrates into the dermis, UVA may be responsible for most of the chronic skin damage associated with photoageing. Sunlight damages skin across a spectrum of physiological processes. UV radiation in the dermis causes a molecular chain reaction which ultimately results in the upregulation, in both dermis and epidermis, of matrix metalloproteinases which stimulate the production of collagenase, gelatinase and stromelysin-1 in both fibroblasts and keratinocytes.
Skin is the first body part to show the signs of age. Healthy age-related skin changes are inevitable and include thinning, sagging, wrinkling and the appearance of age spots, broken blood vessels and areas of dryness. Unhealthy skin changes, such as skin cancer, are also more common as weage and are usually made worse by exposure to the sun. Many people would like their skin to look as young as possible. Healthy lifestyle choices and good skin care can help you to minimise the signs of both healthy and unhealthy ageing.
Skin is unique in that is the organ that shields the interior of our body from the environment and all types of environmental assaults including solar damage, injury, pollution, and others.
Theory 1 – Oxidative Stress
This theory is more commonly known as the free radical theory of aging. All cells need energy to perform their particular function. This energy is a very “hot” process and uses free radical generation to burn fuel. In this process, extra free radicals are created. These extra free radicals bounce around inside the cell, damaging all cellular structures they contact. Over a lifetime, these free radical “hits” gradually accumulate leading to a physiologic decline in structure and function. We label this decline “aging.” Skin cells being metabolically active are subject to the same free radical damage as other cells of the body. In addition, skin cells are damaged by energy packets of solar rays termed photons. Photons are themselves very high-energy particles that are free radicals. Depending on whether the sunscreen chosen is physical or chemical, these solar free radicals can be blocked or neutralized. Antioxidants are helpful because they combine with free radicals and prevent the ongoing cascade of free radical damage. Only about one percent of oral antioxidants reach the skin so topical antioxidants are also critical.
Theory 2 – Inflammation
A certain amount of inflammation is required for health. Through its inflammatory response the body combats infections, clears away damaged tissue and heals sunburn and other oxidative processes. Excess inflammation results in accelerated rates of aging, scarring and destruction of normal tissue architecture. Free radical damage is well-known to trigger excess inflammation. The inflammatory response is elevated in those having higher levels of oxidative stress byproducts. Oleuropein is an anti-inflammatory substance found in the olive tree, Olea europaea. More antiinflammatory activity is contained within the olive leaf than in other parts such as olive oil.
Theory 3 – Glycation
The process of attaching a sugar to a protein is called glycation. Oxidative damage is an intracellular process, i.e. occurs inside the cell whereas glycation is an extracellular process and occurs outside the cell. Glycation occurs in protein-rich tissues that contain large amounts of the protein collagen. Collagen-rich tissues include the skin, blood vessels, joints and lens of the eye. Glycated collagen is damaged collagen and less able to respond to physical stress by stretching. Glycated collagen has much less deformability and resilience.
Theory 4 – DNA Damage
DNA is contained in the helical structure inside chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell. This DNA contains our genetic material and also directs the function of the cell in which it resides. A cell with damaged DNA cannot properly function and may even become cancerous. Increased DNA damage in skin occurs with photoaging and high oxidative stress. Not as much DNA damage is found with glycation because DNA is protected from glycation within the cell. Most glycation occurs extracellularly.
- Degenerative Disorders Caused by Ageing
Aging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). There are almost 40 million people aged 65+ in the United States. Statistics predict that if you reach age 65 you can expect to live almost 20 more years. The average age of onset of PD is 60 years. If you are 85 years of age, you have an almost 50% risk of developing AD. The population of persons 85+ is projected to increase from 4.2 million in the year 2000 to 6.6 million in the year 2020. This suggests that these neurodegenerative diseases will reach a prevalence of epidemic proportions. The current dogma holds that cellular mechanisms that are associated with aging and those that are related to neuron degeneration in PD and AD are unrelated. However, more recent evidence suggests that normal aging and the degeneration of specific neuron populations in AD or PD may be linked by the same cellular mechanisms.
The degenerative diseases associated with aging include cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune-system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts. The functional degeneration of somatic cells during aging appears, in good part, to contribute to these diseases. The relationship between cancer and age in various
mammalian species illustrates this point. Cancer increases with about the fifth
power of age in both short-lived species, such as rats, and long-lived species, such
as humans. Thus a marked decrease in age-specific cancer rates has accompanied the marked increase in lifespan that has occurred in 60 million years of mammalian evolution; i.e., cancer rates are high in a 2-year-old rat, but low in a
2-year-old human. One important factor in longevity appears to be basal metabolic rate, which is about 7 times higher in a rat than in a human and which could markedly affect the level of endogenous oxidants and other mutagens produced as by-products of metabolism. The level of oxidative DNA d amage appears to be roughly related to metabolic rate in a number of mammalian species.
- Research Corrective or Active Skincare Products
After the discussion about aging and the occurrence, it turns out the aging process can be prevented using the type of corrective products and treatment with radio frequency.
Corrective is an anti-wringkle treatment inspired by the world’s most prestigious non-invasive medical aesthetic treatments. It is scientifically formulated for treating the deepest wringkles and expression lines, firms and rejuvenated the facial expression and the skin youthful appearance is enhanced. It combines up to nine active ingredients white proven efficiency, including internal tissue redensifers, skin fill-in subtances, neuro-inhibitor agentand state-of-the-art skin-lifting pepttides white pre-and post-synaptic activity. The ingredients are : hamamelis virginiana flower water, acetyl hexapeptide-30, camelia oleracea extract, acytyl hexapeptide-B, dipeptide diaminobutyrayl benzylamide, oat kernel extract, peptapeptide-18, hyaluronic acid, acamela flower extract. Correctine is an exceptionally effective to medi-appereance treatment that is attractive both because of its result and its exclusive, sophiticated textures. This product for skin charateristics mature skin white deep wringkles and espresion lines. Corrective products : eye expresion line eraser, instan lip contour filler, expresion line serum, instant wringkle filler cream, expresion line eraser & wringkle filler profesional treatment.
Eye expresion line ereser formulated purpose smooth out deep wrikles and expression line around the eye countur area. Combine up to seven active ingredients with proven effeciency, including internal tissue redensifying agent, skin filling subtance, neural inhibitor agent and demo-lifting peptides with pre-and post-synaptic activity, use after cleansing and toning, apply a thin layer of thr eye expression line eraser with a soft, inside-out massage, emphasizing on the wringkles. Instan lip contour filler formulated for deep wringkles and expression lines around the lip contour. Combines up to seven active ingredients with proven effciency, including internal tissue redensifying agents, skin filling subtances, neural inhibitor agents and demi-lifting peptides with pre-and post-synaptic activity, use after cleansing and toning, apply instant lip contour filler around the lips, emphasizing on the expression line and wringkles. Expression line serum formulated for smoothing out deep wringkles and expresion lines. Combine up to seven active ingradients with proven efficiency, including internal tissue redensifying agents, skin filling subtaces, neural inhibitor agents and demo-lifting peptides with pre-and post-synaptic activity, use after cleansing and toning, spread a few drops of the expression line serum over the face, neck and decollete, with gentle circular movement, paying particular attention to wringkle. Instan wringkle filler cream formulated for smoothing out deep wringkles and expresion lines. Combine up to seven active ingradients with proven efficiency, including internal tissue redensifying agents, skin filling subtaces, neural inhibitor agents and demo-lifting peptides with pre-and post-synaptic activity, use after cleansing and toning, and applying expression line serum apply athin layer of the instant wringkle filler cream over the face, neck and decollete with gentle massage movement until it is completely absorbed. Corrective profesional pack anti ageing profesional treatment inspired by the worlds most prestigius non-invasive medical aesthetic treatments.it is scientifically formulated for treating the deepest wringkles wringkls and expression line, firm and rejuvenates the facial expression and skins youthful appearance is echanced. Fill-in technique and application subtance help to relax the skins micro-contractures an an intense smothing effect is produced on the deepest wringkles. As a result, these wringkles are reduced gradually and naturallyafter the few sessions.
- Research Radio Frequency Treatment
Treatment with the latest technology is a promising face look more toned without having to go through surgery though. In contrast with Botox, Radio Frequency RF or commonly abbreviated does not require injections at all. On the Radio Frequency treatment, the skin is heated to 40 degrees and the heat is expected to be able to stimulate the formation of collagen under the skin. Now the formation of collagen under the skin is able to make the face feels tighter. In addition to stimulating collagen formation, heat of RF devices also were able to burn fat, This is why RF also can be used all over the body for slimming. However, not only in a one-time treatment. Should be repeated once a week within 4-8 times depending on the desired area of treatment.
Treatment On Face
If it could face up to four times while the body can be up to 8 times the treatment for optimal results, the period of 2 weeks. With the stimulation of collagen formation of Radio Frequency treatment, the wrinkles will be obscured. Not only that, cheek area could also be made more gaunt with tmenggunakan tool that delivers Multipolar Radio Frequency and Magnetic pulses to the skin. In particular, this frequency radio is designed as the latest antiaging treatments that can also produce skin that feels more supple and younger looking. After treatment is completed, the patient was immediately able to see a change in the desired area of the face. To show changes in patients, we usually do the treatment on one side first so that it can be compared the difference. Will be directly visible firming skin and face look more gaunt. In total, these changes can be directly visible to 60% for Radio Frequency treatment of this.
In the Body Care
For areas of the body, treatment of Radio Frequency can be done in the area of the abdomen, thighs, and arms. This treatment can be used for skin that has been slack and stretch marks or cellulite scars. RF treatment can help reduce the appearance of stretch marks like. It is not 100%, but seen no improvement there. If the area of the arm can be made much faster. With the burning of fat, what does it mean body weight was also reduced? Automatic yes, but it is not significant. Surely this must collaborate with diet and exercise routine so that the result is more optimal. Fat burning with this treatment is only done on the fat that is close to the skin surface. So, if it is not accompanied by additional exercise, the result would look tight course, but not optimal. For the abdominal area, this treatment can be done to tighten the area. However, there must be a repetition, when once it is not too visible results. Abdominal circumference can be reduced 2-3 centimeters with repetition of treatment up to 8 times.
Before the treatment is done, the target area will be cleaned first. For example, areas of the face with a facial cleanser. Then to overcome not comfortable, patients will also be anaesthetized topical for half an hour before the RF. Furthermore, the action was carried out using a special tool with a tip that is designed to stimulate the production of collagen. Once completed, the area will be immediately cleaned from the remnants of treatment. How long this will last? The duration of action will depend on the intended area. For facial area usually takes for half an hour. If for the agency can take 1-2 hours depending on the area that will be taken. Securities to be received by the patient usually only redness that will last approximately one hour. Redness effect is caused because there is a heating process is done. However, nobody really the pain of this treatment, will only feel warm just in the skin. After that the patient can go as usual.
The recommended age
Actually RF is safe to do so since the age of 20 years and up to 60 years. However, there are some conditions that are not allowed to do this treatment, such as pregnant and lactating. Prior to treatment the RF, will be given in advance to inform the patient concerned. We will explain in advance about the procedure to be performed and also about the possible effects that will result afterwards. Given Radio Frequency is indeed focused on the formation of collagen with a tightening effect on the skin, in fact it will also affect the results of the face will look brighter.
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