5 MACAM JENIS KULIT MENURUT DERMATOLIGIST

Kulit adalah organ yang paling luas & terlihat dari seluruh anggota tubuh. Selain wajah, warna kulit biasa digunakan untuk membedakan seseorang dengan yang lainnya.

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Perbedaan jenis warna kulit seseorang umumnya digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi ras dan keturunan orang tersebut.

Umumnya, bangsa Indonesia atau Melayu memiliki kulit berwarna cokelat sawo matang atau kuning langsat, bangsa China berkulit kuning, bangsa Eropa berkulit putih dan Afrika berkulit hitam.

Namun, bagaimana penggolongan kulit manusia menurut ahli dermatologi?

Thomas B. Fitzpatrick adalah sosok dermatologis terkemuka asal Amerika berkat karya dan kiprahnya di dunia kesehatan kulit.

Pada hasil penelitiannya, Fitzpatrick mengelompokkan lima jenis warna kulit manusia yang masing-masing mempunyai karakter serta kelebihan dan kekurangannya masing-masing.

Kelima jenis warna kulit ini terbilang cukup mewakili beragam warna kulit seluruh manusia di dunia. Berikut ini 5 jenis warna kulit manusia;

1.Warna Very Fair

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Jenis warna kulit very fair memiliki tingkat intensitas warna putih yang sangat terang dan cenderung terkesan pucat.

Jenis ini tidak akan bisa menggelap atau kecoklatan meski terpapar oleh sinar matahari seharian. Masyarakat keturunan ras Eropa dan Australia memiliki kulit dengan warna jenis ini.

2.Warna Fair

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Fair, adalah jenis warna kulit yang cenderung lebih pink dan banyak muncul di jenis kulit bangsa Jepang dan Cina.

Warna kulit fair selalu bisa terbakar, namun terkadang bisa berubah menjadi gelap. Orang-orang dengan warna kulit ini tentu harus lebih berhati-hati melindungi tubuh dari sinar UV yang berbahaya.

3.Warna Medium

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Warna kulit medium adalah warna kulit orang keturunan Indian Meksiko dan Indonesia pada umumnya. Jenis warna medium bila terpapar sinar matahari akan cukup mudah berubah menjadi gelap.

4.Warna Olive

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Warna kulit olive walaupun jarang terpapar sinar matahari, warnanya akan tetap cokelat. Warna kulit ini juga dimiliki oleh masyarakat melayu.

5.Warna Brown

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Warna kulit brown atau black banyak didapatikan pada bangsa Afrika dan India. Kulit brown atau black meskipun tidak pernah terkena sinar matahari langsung, tapi akan selalu menggelap atau hitam.

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WARNA KULIT

WARNA KULIT MANUSIA

Warna kulit manusia berkisar dalam variasi dari warna coklat paling gelap sampai warna yang paling ringan. Pigmentasi kulit seseorang adalah hasil genetika, menjadi produk kedua susunan genetik orang tua biologis seseorang. Dalam evolusi, pigmentasi kulit pada manusia berevolusi oleh proses seleksi alam terutama untuk mengatur jumlah radiasi ultraviolet yang menembus kulit, mengendalikan efek biokimia. [1]

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Warna kulit sebenarnya dari manusia yang berbeda dipengaruhi oleh banyak zat, meski zat terpenting adalah pigmen melanin. Melanin diproduksi di dalam kulit dalam sel yang disebut melanosit dan merupakan penentu utama warna kulit manusia berkulit gelap.

Warna kulit orang dengan kulit ringan ditentukan terutama oleh jaringan ikat putih kebiruan di bawah dermis dan oleh hemoglobin yang beredar di pembuluh darah dermis. Warna merah yang mendasari kulit menjadi lebih terlihat, terutama di wajah, bila sebagai akibat latihan fisik atau stimulasi sistem saraf (amarah, ketakutan), arteriol melebar. [2] Warna tidak sepenuhnya seragam di kulit individu; Sebagai contoh, kulit telapak tangan dan telapak tangan lebih ringan dari kebanyakan kulit lainnya, dan ini terutama terlihat pada orang berkulit gelap. [3]

Ada korelasi langsung antara distribusi geografis radiasi ultraviolet (UVR) dan distribusi pigmentasi kulit asli di seluruh dunia. Daerah yang menerima jumlah UVR lebih tinggi, umumnya terletak dekat dengan khatulistiwa, cenderung memiliki populasi berkulit gelap. Daerah yang jauh dari daerah tropis dan dekat dengan kutub memiliki intensitas UVR yang lebih rendah, yang tercermin pada populasi berkulit terang. [4]

Peneliti menyarankan bahwa populasi manusia selama 50.000 tahun terakhir telah berubah dari kulit berkulit gelap menjadi berkulit terang dan sebaliknya saat mereka bermigrasi ke zona UV yang berbeda, [5] dan bahwa perubahan besar dalam pigmentasi mungkin terjadi hanya dalam 100 generasi. (≈2,500 tahun) melalui selektif sweeps. [5] [6] [7] Warna kulit alami juga bisa menggelora akibat penyamakan akibat paparan sinar matahari.

Teori utamanya adalah bahwa warna kulit menyesuaikan dengan iradiasi sinar matahari yang intens untuk memberikan perlindungan parsial terhadap fraksi ultraviolet yang menghasilkan kerusakan dan dengan demikian mutasi pada DNA sel kulit. [8] [9] Selain itu, telah diamati bahwa betina dewasa betina rata-rata secara signifikan lebih ringan pada pigmentasi kulit dibandingkan laki-laki.

Betina membutuhkan lebih banyak kalsium selama kehamilan dan menyusui. Tubuh mensintesis vitamin D dari sinar matahari, yang membantu menyerap kalsium. Betina berkembang menjadi kulit yang lebih terang sehingga tubuh mereka menyerap lebih banyak kalsium. [10]

Signifikan sosial perbedaan warna kulit bervariasi antar budaya dan seiring berjalannya waktu, seperti yang ditunjukkan berkaitan dengan status sosial dan diskriminasi.

Melanin & Genetik 

Melanin diproduksi oleh sel yang disebut melanosit dalam proses yang disebut melanogenesis. Melanin dibuat dalam kemasan terbatas membran yang disebut melanosom. Saat mereka menjadi penuh melanin, mereka beralih ke lengan melanosit yang ramping, dari tempat mereka dipindahkan ke keratinosit.

Dalam kondisi normal, melanosom mencakup bagian atas keratinosit dan melindungi mereka dari kerusakan genetik. Satu melanosit memasok melanin ke tiga puluh enam keratinosit sesuai sinyal dari keratinosit. Mereka juga mengatur produksi melanin dan replikasi melanosit. [7]

Orang memiliki warna kulit yang berbeda terutama karena melanosit mereka menghasilkan jumlah dan jenis melanin yang berbeda. Mekanisme genetik di balik warna kulit manusia terutama diatur oleh enzim tirosinase, yang menciptakan warna kulit, mata, dan nuansa rambut. [11] [12] Perbedaan warna kulit juga dikaitkan dengan perbedaan ukuran dan distribusi melanosom pada kulit. [7]

Melanosit menghasilkan dua jenis melanin. Bentuk melanin biologis yang paling umum adalah eumelanin, polimer hitam-hitam dari asam karboksilat dihidroksiindol, dan bentuknya yang berkurang. Sebagian besar berasal dari tirosin asam amino. Eumelanin ditemukan di rambut, areola, dan kulit, dan warna rambutnya abu-abu, hitam, pirang, dan coklat. Pada manusia, itu lebih banyak pada orang dengan kulit gelap.

Pheomelanin, rona merah muda sampai merah ditemukan dalam jumlah besar dengan rambut merah, [13] bibir, puting susu, kelenjar penis, dan vagina. [14] Baik jumlah dan jenis melanin yang dihasilkan dikendalikan oleh sejumlah gen yang beroperasi dengan dominasi yang tidak lengkap. [15]

Satu salinan masing-masing dari berbagai gen diwarisi dari masing-masing orang tua. Setiap gen bisa datang dalam beberapa alel, menghasilkan berbagai macam warna kulit manusia. Melanin mengendalikan jumlah radiasi ultraviolet (UV) dari sinar matahari yang menembus kulit dengan penyerapan. Sementara radiasi UV dapat membantu dalam produksi vitamin D, paparan sinar UV yang berlebihan dapat merusak kesehatan.

Evolusi Warna Kulit

Hilangnya rambut tubuh pada spesies Hominini diasumsikan terkait dengan munculnya bipedalisme sekitar 5 sampai 7 juta tahun yang lalu. [16] Bipedal hominin body hair mungkin telah hilang secara bertahap untuk memungkinkan pembuangan panas lebih baik melalui keringat. [10] [17]

Munculnya pigmentasi kulit terjadi setelah ini, mungkin sekitar 1,5 juta tahun yang lalu (sekitar waktu munculnya Homo heidelbergensis), ketika bumi mengalami megadrought yang mendorong manusia purba ke tempat terbuka yang tandus dan terbuka. Kondisi seperti itu kemungkinan disebabkan radiasi UV-B berlebih. Ini disukai munculnya pigmentasi kulit untuk melindungi dari penipisan folat akibat meningkatnya paparan sinar matahari. [8] [9] Sebuah teori bahwa pigmentasi membantu melawan stres xeric dengan meningkatkan penghalang permeabilitas epidermal [18] telah dibantah. [8]

Dengan evolusi kulit yang tidak berbulu, kelenjar keringat yang melimpah, dan kulit yang kaya akan melanin, manusia purba dapat berjalan, berlari, dan mencari makanan untuk jangka waktu yang lama di bawah terik matahari tanpa kerusakan otak akibat kepanasan, memberi mereka keuntungan evolusioner lebih dari spesies lainnya. [7] Dengan 1,2 juta tahun yang lalu, sekitar waktu Homo ergaster, manusia purba (termasuk nenek moyang Homo sapiens) memiliki protein reseptor yang sama persis dengan sub-Sahara Afrika modern. [17] Ini adalah genotip yang diwarisi oleh manusia modern anatomi, namun hanya dipertahankan oleh sebagian populasi yang masih ada, sehingga membentuk aspek variasi genetik manusia. Sekitar 100.000-70.000 tahun yang lalu, beberapa manusia modern anatomis (Homo sapiens) mulai bermigrasi dari daerah tropis ke utara di mana mereka terkena sinar matahari yang tidak terlalu kuat.

Hal ini mungkin sebagian karena kebutuhan penggunaan pakaian lebih banyak untuk melindungi iklim yang lebih dingin. Dengan kondisi ini, kurang fotodernasi folat sehingga tekanan evolusioner yang bekerja melawan kelangsungan hidup varian gen berkulit terang berkurang. Selain itu, kulit yang lebih ringan mampu menghasilkan lebih banyak vitamin D (cholecalciferol) daripada kulit yang lebih gelap, sehingga akan mewakili manfaat kesehatan dalam mengurangi sinar matahari jika ada sumber vitamin D. [10] Oleh karena itu hipotesis utama untuk evolusi warna kulit manusia mengusulkan bahwa: Dari sekitar 1,2 juta tahun yang lalu sampai kurang dari 100.000 tahun yang lalu, manusia purba, termasuk Homo sapiens kuno, berkulit gelap.

Seiring populasi Homo sapiens mulai bermigrasi, batasan evolusioner yang membuat kulit gelap turun secara proporsional terhadap jarak utara yang diproyeksikan oleh penduduk, menghasilkan kisaran nada kulit di dalam populasi utara.Pada beberapa titik, beberapa populasi utara mengalami seleksi positif untuk kulit yang lebih ringan karena peningkatan produksi vitamin D dari sinar matahari dan gen untuk kulit yang lebih gelap menghilang dari populasi ini.

Migrasi selanjutnya ke lingkungan UV yang berbeda dan campuran antara populasi telah menghasilkan beragam pigmen kulit yang kita lihat sekarang.Mutasi genetik yang menyebabkan kulit menjadi ringan, meskipun sebagian berbeda antara orang Asia Timur dan Eropa Barat, [19] menyarankan kedua kelompok mengalami tekanan selektif yang sama setelah menetap di garis lintang utara. [20] Pada titik mana perkembangan ini terjadi untuk sub-populasi Homo sapiens (dan apakah kulit ringan juga terjadi secara independen di Homo neanderthalensis) sedang dalam perdebatan.

Ada hipotesis lama bahwa pemilihan kulit yang lebih ringan karena penyerapan vitamin D yang lebih tinggi terjadi segera setelah migrasi di luar Afrika beberapa waktu sebelum 40.000 tahun yang lalu. Sejumlah peneliti tidak setuju dengan hal ini dan menyarankan agar lintang utara mengizinkan sintesis vitamin D yang cukup dikombinasikan dengan sumber makanan dari berburu agar populasi tetap sehat, dan hanya jika pertanian diadopsi, ada kebutuhan akan kulit yang lebih ringan untuk memaksimalkan sintesis vitamin D.

Teori tersebut menunjukkan bahwa pengurangan daging permainan, ikan, dan beberapa tanaman dari makanan menghasilkan kulit yang berubah menjadi cahaya ribuan tahun setelah pemukiman di Eurasia. [21] Teori ini sebagian didukung oleh sebuah penelitian terhadap gen SLC24A5 yang menemukan bahwa alel yang terkait dengan kulit ringan di Eropa “menetapkan bahwa 18.000 tahun telah berlalu sejak alel kulit cahaya terpaku pada orang Eropa” namun mungkin baru saja terbentuk 12.000- 6.000 tahun yang lalu “mengingat ketidaktepatan metode”, [22] yang sesuai dengan bukti awal pertanian. [23] Penelitian oleh Nina Jablonski menunjukkan bahwa perkiraan waktu sekitar 10.000 sampai 20.000 tahun sudah cukup bagi populasi manusia untuk mencapai pigmentasi kulit yang optimal di wilayah geografis tertentu namun pengembangan pewarnaan kulit yang ideal dapat terjadi lebih cepat jika tekanan evolusioner lebih kuat, bahkan pada saat sedikit sebagai 100 generasi. [5]

Lamanya waktu juga dipengaruhi oleh praktik budaya seperti asupan makanan, pakaian, penutup tubuh, dan penggunaan tempat tinggal yang dapat mengubah cara lingkungan mempengaruhi populasi. [7] Salah satu pendorong evolusi pigmentasi kulit yang paling baru-baru ini diajukan pada manusia didasarkan pada penelitian yang menunjukkan fungsi penghalang superior pada kulit berpigmen gelap. Sebagian besar fungsi pelindung kulit, termasuk penghalang permeabilitas dan penghalang antimikroba, berada di stratum korneum (SC) dan para periset menduga bahwa SC telah mengalami perubahan genetik paling banyak sejak hilangnya rambut tubuh manusia.

Pemilihan alam akan lebih menyukai mutasi yang melindungi penghalang penting ini; Salah satu adaptasi protektif tersebut adalah pigmentasi epidermis interfollicular, karena meningkatkan fungsi penghalang dibandingkan dengan kulit yang tidak berpigmen. Di hutan hujan yang lebat, bagaimanapun, di mana radiasi UV-B dan tekanan xeric tidak berlebihan, pigmentasi ringan tidak akan hampir sama merugikannya. Ini menjelaskan tempat tinggal berdampingan dengan pigmen dan pigmen gelap. [18] Studi populasi dan campuran menyarankan model tiga arah untuk evolusi warna kulit manusia, dengan kulit gelap berkembang pada hominid awal di Afrika dan kulit ringan berkembang sebagian secara terpisah setidaknya dua kali setelah manusia modern meluas keluar dari Afrika. [19] [ 25] [26] [27] [28] [29]

Sebagian besar, evolusi kulit ringan mengikuti jalur genetik yang berbeda pada populasi Eurasia Barat dan Timur. Dua gen bagaimanapun, KITLG dan ASIP, memiliki mutasi yang terkait dengan kulit yang lebih ringan yang memiliki frekuensi tinggi pada populasi Eurasia dan memperkirakan jumlah tanggal setelah manusia menyebar dari Afrika namun sebelum terjadi perbedaan dua garis keturunan. [27]

Sumber : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_skin_color

Mengapa Kantung Mata Bisa Terjadi Dan Bagaimana Cara Mencegahnya

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Timbulnya kantung mata dapat mengganggu penampilan karena membuat wajah seseorang terlihat lelah dan lebih tua.

Kantung mata bisa terjadi karena pembengkakan yang disebabkan oleh penumpukan cairan di sekitar mata, disebut juga dengan edema periorbital. Munculnya kantung mata oleh karena penumpukan cairan bersifat sementara, berbeda dengan yang disebabkan oleh penuaan.

 

Umumnya wanita merasa terganggu jika kantung mata mulai muncul dan rela merogoh kocek lebih dalam untuk menghilangkannya agar penampilan mereka terlihat tetap menarik. Sebenarnya kita dapat mengatasi dan mencegah munculnya kantung mata tanpa biaya yang mahal.

Penyebab Kantung Mata

Berikut adalah keadaan-keadaan yang dapat menyebabkan adanya katung mata.

Kurang Tidur. Munculnya kantung mata umumnya dikaitkan dengan kurangnya waktu tidur. Kurang tidur menyebabkan pembuluh darah di bagian bawah mata melebar dan menimbulkan warna gelap.

Pola makan yang tidak baik. Mulailah untuk menjaga pola makan dan asupan gizi Anda, serta minum air setidaknya 8 gelas sehari agar kebutuhan cairan dalam tubuh dapat terpenuhi dengan baik. Kekurangan cairan dan protein tidak hanya dapat memengaruhi kesehatan, tapi juga dapat memengaruhi area bawah mata Anda.

Alergi. Pada rinitis alergi, terjadi peradangan di hidung oleh karena reaksi alergi. Gejala yang timbul meliputi bersin-bersin dan mata berair, dapat diiringi dengan timbulnya kantung mata dan lingkar hitam di bawah mata.

Penuaan. Penuaan dapat menyebabkan munculnya kantung mata karena seiring bertambahnya usia, otot dan struktur jaringan di sekitar mata melemah. Kulit juga akan mulai mengendur dan cairan akan mulai berkumpul di bagian bawah mata. Selain itu, lemak yang berada di sekitar mata juga akan bergerak ke daerah sekitar bawah mata sehingga terlihat bengkak atau muncul kantung mata. Perubahan ini bertambah seiring waktu dan tidak bersifat sementara.

Penyebab-penyebab lainnya. Kantung mata dan lingkaran hitam pada mata juga dapat disebabkan oleh kebiasaan merokok, terlalu banyak mengonsumsi kafein, menangis, kelainan pada kulit, atau adanya peradangan dan infeksi di kelopak mata atau di sekitar kulit mata.

Cara Mengatasi Kantung Mata

Timbulnya kantung mata dapat dicegah di antaranya dengan tidur sekitar 8 jam sehari. Anda juga disarankan untuk minum air putih yang cukup, setidaknya 8 gelas sehari. Hindari makanan dan minuman yang mengandung kafein dan kadar alkohol tinggi.

Jika Anda telah melakukan hal tersebut dan kantung mata masih tetap ada, atasi masalah kantung mata dengan melakukan hal-hal berikut ini.

  • Kompres mata selama 10 hingga 15 menit dengan menggunakan beberapa bahan yang telah didinginkan. Seperti mentimun, wortel yang sudah dilapisi kain, atau kantung teh hijau.
  • Pertahankan tidur dan minum air yang cukup.
  • Hindari penggunaan garam berlebihan pada makanan Anda. Dengan mengurangi garam dalam makanan, kecenderungan tubuh mempertahankan kelebihan air akan berkurang.
  • Beberapa perawatan untuk mengurangi kerutan pada wajah dapat membantu mengurangi kantung mata. Prosedur yang dapat dilakukan antara lain laser resurfacing yang mana pengurangan jaringan dilakukan dengan laser. Cara lain adalah dengan chemical peel, yaitu cara pengelupasan kulit sedikit demi sedikit menggunakan bahan kimia.Selain itu juga dapat dilakukan dermal filler, penyuntikan zat tertentu di atas tulang rongga mata untuk menghilangkan lingkaran hitam mata.
  • Selain perawatan dari dokter dermatologist mengurangi kantung mata dapat dilakukan melalui prosedur operasi yang dinamakan blefaroplasti. Prosedur ini biasanya dilakukan untuk usia di atas 35 tahun. Sebelum melakukan prosedur tersebut, sebaiknya konsultasikan dengan dokter mengenai risiko, prosedur operasi, efek samping, dan sejarah kesehatan Anda.

Kantung mata dapat mengganggu penampilan Anda. Oleh karena itu, mulailah melakukan upaya pencegahan dengan gaya hidup sehat agar kesegaran seluruh tubuh termasuk kulit sekitar mata dapat terjaga.

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MELASMA

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MELASMA

Apa itu melasma?

Melasma adalah masalah kulit yang umum terjadi. Ini menyebabkan coklat ke abu-abu-coklat patch, biasanya di wajah. Kebanyakan orang terdapat pada di pipi mereka, di daerah hidung, dahi, dagu, dan di atas bibir atasnya. Hal itu juga bisa muncul di bagian tubuh lain yang banyak mendapat paparan sinar matahari.

Salah satu perawatan melasma yang paling umum adalah perlindungan sinar matahari. Ini berarti memakai tabir surya setiap hari dan mengoleskan kembali tabir surya setiap 2 jam. Ahli dermatologi juga merekomendasikan untuk mengenakan topi bertepi lebar saat Anda berada di luar, menghidari paparan sinar matahari secara langsung. Tabir surya sendiri mungkin tidak memberi Anda perlindungan yang Anda butuhkan.

Wanita jauh lebih mungkin dibandingkan pria untuk terjadi melasma. Hal ini biasa terjadi pada kehamilan dimana kadang-kadang melasma disebut “topeng kehamilan”. Hormon nampaknya memicu melasma.

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Gambar yang digunakan dengan izin dari American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides.

MELASMA: TANDA DAN GEJALA

Tanda-tanda umum (apa yang Anda lihat) melasma adalah bercak coklat atau coklat abu-abu di wajah. Patch ini paling sering muncul di:

·      Pipi

·      Dahi.

·      Area hidung.

·      Di atas bibir atas.

·      Dagu.

Beberapa orang mendapatkan patch pada lengan bawah atau leher mereka.

Ini kurang umum. Melasma tidak menimbulkan gejala apapun (apa yang orang rasakan). Tapi banyak orang tidak menyukai cara melasma membuat kulit mereka terlihat. Jika Anda tidak menyukai tambalan ini, perlindungan dan perawatan sinar matahari dapat membantu.

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Gambar yang digunakan dengan izin dari American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides.

MELASMA: WHO MENDAPATKAN DAN PENYEBAB

Siapa yang melasma?

Melasma muncul di kulit wanita lebih sering daripada kulit pria. Hanya 10% orang yang terkena melasma adalah laki-laki. Orang dengan kulit lebih gelap, seperti keturunan Latin / Hispanik, Afrika Utara, Afrika-Amerika, Asia, India, Timur Tengah, atau Mediterania cenderung melasma. Orang yang memiliki kerabat darah yang memiliki melasma juga cenderung melasma.

Apa yang menyebabkan melasma?

Yang menyebabkan melasma belum jelas. Ini kemungkinan terjadi ketika sel pembuat warna di kulit (melanocytes) menghasilkan terlalu banyak warna. Orang dengan warna kulit lebih rentan terhadap melasma karena mereka memiliki melanosit yang lebih aktif daripada orang dengan kulit ringan.

Pemicu melasma yang umum (apa yang memulainya) meliputi: 

Paparan sinar matahari: sinar ultraviolet (UV) dari sinar matahari merangsang melanosit. Padahal, secukupnya sedikit paparan sinar matahari bisa membuat melasma kembali setelah memudar. Paparan sinar matahari adalah mengapa melasma sering memburuk di musim panas. Ini juga merupakan alasan utama mengapa banyak orang dengan melasma mendapatkannya lagi dan lagi.

Perubahan hormon: Wanita hamil sering mengalami melasma. Saat melasma muncul pada wanita hamil, itu disebut chloasma, atau topeng kehamilan. Pil KB dan obat pengganti hormon juga bisa memicu melasma. Produk perawatan kulit: Jika produk mengiritasi kulit Anda, melasma bisa memburuk.

MELASMA: DIAGNOSA DAN PENGOBATAN

Bagaimana dermatolog mendiagnosis melasma?

Dermatologi dapat mendiagnosis sebagian besar pasien dengan melihat kulit mereka. Untuk melihat seberapa dalam melasma menembus kulit, dokter kulit Anda mungkin melihat kulit Anda di bawah alat yang disebut cahaya Kayu.

Terkadang melasma bisa terlihat seperti kondisi kulit lainnya. Untuk menyingkirkan kondisi kulit lain, dokter kulit Anda mungkin perlu mengeluarkan sedikit kulit. Prosedur ini disebut biopsi kulit. Seorang dermatologis dapat dengan aman dan cepat melakukan biopsi kulit selama kunjungan ke kantor.

Bagaimana dermatologists mengobati melasma?

Melasma bisa memudar dengan sendirinya. Hal ini biasanya terjadi saat pemicu, seperti pil kehamilan atau pil KB, menyebabkan melasma. Saat seorang wanita mengantarkan bayinya atau berhenti minum pil KB, melasma bisa memudar.

Beberapa orang, bagaimanapun, memiliki melasma selama bertahun-tahun – atau bahkan seumur hidup. Jika melasma tidak hilang atau wanita ingin terus memakai pil KB, perawatan melasma juga tersedia.

Ini termasuk: Hydroquinone: Obat ini merupakan pengobatan pertama yang umum untuk melasma. Ini dioleskan ke kulit dan bekerja dengan cara meringankan kulit. Anda akan menemukan hydroquinone dalam pengobatan yang datang sebagai krim, lotion, gel, atau cairan. Anda bisa mendapatkan beberapa dari ini tanpa resep. Produk ini mengandung lebih sedikit hydroquinone daripada produk yang bisa diberikan resep dokter kulit Anda.

Tretinoin dan kortikosteroid: Untuk meningkatkan pencerah kulit, dokter kulit Anda mungkin meresepkan obat kedua. Obat ini bisa berupa tretinoin atau kortikosteroid. Terkadang obat mengandung 3 obat (hydroquinone, tretinoin, dan kortikosteroid) dalam 1 krim. Ini sering disebut triple cream.

Obat topikal lainnya (diaplikasikan pada kulit): Dokter kulit Anda mungkin memberi resep asam azelaic atau asam kojic untuk membantu meringankan melasma. Prosedur: Jika obat yang Anda aplikasikan ke kulit Anda tidak menghilangkan melasma Anda, prosedur mungkin berhasil.

Prosedur untuk melasma meliputi kulit kimiawi, mikrodermabrasi, dermabrasi, perawatan laser, atau prosedur berbasis cahaya. Hanya dokter kulit yang harus melakukan prosedur ini. Masalah kulit baru bisa terjadi bila orang yang memberi perawatan tidak menyesuaikannya dengan jenis kulit pasien.

Tanyakan kepada dokter kulit Anda tentang kemungkinan efek samping (masalah kesehatan yang bisa diakibatkan pengobatan). Jika Anda memperhatikan hal berikut setelah mendapatkan pengobatan untuk melasma, pastikan untuk menghubungi dokter kulit Anda:

·      Iritasi kulit

·      Menggelapkan kulit

·      Masalah lainnya

Hasil

Di bawah perawatan dermatologis, banyak orang dengan melasma memiliki hasil yang baik. Melasma bisa menjadi keras kepala. Mungkin perlu beberapa bulan perawatan untuk melihat perbaikan. Penting untuk mengikuti saran dokter kulit Anda. Hal ini memastikan bahwa Anda mendapatkan manfaat paling banyak dari perawatan. Ini juga bisa membantu menghindari iritasi kulit dan efek samping lainnya.

Setelah membersihkan melasma Anda, Anda mungkin perlu merawat kulit Anda. Dokter kulit Anda mungkin menghubungi terapi perawatan ini. Terapi perawatan bisa mencegah melasma kembali.

Anda dapat membantu mencegah melasma Anda kembali dengan memakai tabir surya dan topi bertepi lebar setiap hari. 

MELASMA: TIPS UNTUK MENGELOLA

 Melasma adalah masalah kulit yang umum yang menyebabkan bercak coklat ke abu-abu di wajah. Meskipun penyebab pasti melasma tidak jelas, pemicu umum meliputi paparan sinar matahari, kehamilan, pil KB, dan kosmetik.

Jika Anda memiliki melasma, ahli dermatologi merekomendasikan tip berikut untuk mendapatkan nada kulit yang lebih banyak lagi:

Pakai tabir surya setiap hari: Salah satu perawatan melasma yang paling umum adalah perlindungan sinar matahari. Karena sinar matahari memicu melasma, penting untuk memakai tabir surya setiap hari, bahkan pada hari berawan dan setelah berenang atau berkeringat. Pilih tabir surya yang menawarkan perlindungan spektrum luas, Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 30 atau lebih, dan seng oksida dan / atau titanium dioksida untuk membatasi secara fisik efek sinar matahari pada kulit Anda. Oleskan tabir surya 15 menit sebelum keluar dan mengajukan permohonan kembali setidaknya setiap dua jam.

Pakailah topi bertepi lebar dan kacamata hitam saat Anda berada di luar: Seperti yang baru-baru ini di jurnal Nature, tabir surya mungkin tidak memberi Anda perlindungan matahari yang Anda butuhkan. Bila memungkinkan, cari naungan dan kenakan pakaian pelindung selain mengoleskan tabir surya.

Pilihlah produk perawatan kulit yang lembut: Pilih produk perawatan kulit yang tidak menyengat atau terbakar, karena produk yang mengiritasi kulit bisa memperburuk melasma.

Hindari waxing: Waxing bisa menyebabkan radang kulit yang bisa memperburuk melasma, jadi penting untuk menghindari waxing area tubuh yang terkena kondisi. Tanyakan pada dokter kulit tentang jenis hair removal lainnya yang mungkin tepat untuk Anda.

Jika melasma Anda tidak hilang, lihat ahli dermatologi bersertifikat untuk mendiskusikan perawatan yang tersedia untuk melasma, seperti obat resep atau prosedur di kantor.

sumber : American Academy of Dermatology

 

CONSULTATION

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ANTI AGEING PRODUCT & TREATMENT

ANTI AGEING

PRODUCT & TREATMENT

 

KONSULTASI & PEMESANAN HUBUNGI

 Blackberry ID: 5F31BC23 CONSULTATION & BUYING

Human ageing entails multiple changes at different levels. Some, like wrinkles or grey hair, are more visible than others. Age-related changes also make themselves felt at the functional and physiological level. By and large, most functions begin to decline linearly after reaching peak performance in the third decade of life. It is common knowledge that the ability of adults to perform physical tasks declines with age. Due to loss of muscle and bone mass, ageing is also characterized by weight loss. Though there is considerable individual variability and no two people age alike, other physiological and functional hallmarks of ageing include a gradual reduction in height, a lower metabolic rate, longer reaction times and decreased sexual activity. In women, menopause or reproductive senescence is an inevitable consequence of old age. Functional declines in kidney, pulmonary and immune functions are also frequent. A major concern of older adults is mental health since memory and cognitive impairment are associated with human ageing even in the absence of disease.

Although not all physiological changes lead to pathology, ultimately functional and physiological changes render people more susceptible to a number of diseases. Ageing has been defined as an intrinsic, inevitable and irreversible age-related process of loss of viability and increase in vulnerability. Practically any system, tissue or organ can fail because of ageing. The heart, a critical organ with little room for error or rest, is the organ that most often fails. For people over the age of 85, diseases of the heart are the major cause of death, responsible for almost 40 per cent of all deaths, followed by cancer, cerebrovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, infectious diseases and diabetes.

  1. Research of The Ageing Process & The Effect on The Skin
    • Characteristic and proses ageing

Aging is the progressive accumulation of changes with time associated with or responsible for the ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and death which accompanies advancing age. These time-related changes are attributed to the aging process. This process may be common to all living things, for the phenomenon of aging and death is universal. If so, both aging and the rate of the aging process are under genetic control to some extent for the manifestations of aging, and life span differs between species and individual members of a species. Further, like all chemicals and chemical reactions, the manifestations of aging-which reflect chemical composition-and the rate of the aging process should be subject to environmental influences.

Aging and death of single cells then can be viewed as being due to the aging process, the changes with time and their rates of production being under genetic control but subject to modification by the environment, with death ensuing when one or more activities vital to the cell are depressed below some critical level. Similarly, aging at the multicellular level may be considered the result of the aging processes proceeding in all the cells, with environmental influences now including the effects of the aging cells on each other and the changes with time of the connective tissues. Death of multicellular life occurs because of death or dysfunction, or both, of cells involved in functions vital to the cells as a whole (e.g., functions in mammals such as those of the respiratory center or of the myocardium).

The nature of the aging process has been the subject of considerable speculation (1). Suggested possibilities include (i) encodement of aging in DNA (made manifest in a manner similar to development), (ii) progressive breakdown in accuracy in protein synthesis, (iii) crosslinkage of macromolecules, (iv) in higher organisms, “attack” of the immune system on self-antigens, and (v) free radical reaction damage. This paper is mainly limited to a discussion of the last-named possibility not only because accumulating evidence indicates that aging is largely due to free radical reaction damage but also because it shows promise of serving as a useful guide in the search for practical means of further increasing the healthy human life span.

The free radical theory of aging assumes that there is a single basic cause of aging, modified by genetic and environmental factors, and postulates that free radical reactions are involved in aging and age-related disorders. These reactions arise upon exposure to ionizing radiation, from nonenzymatic reactions, and from enzymatic reactions, particularly those of the two major energy-gaining processes employed by living things-photosynthesis and the reduction of O2 to water. They probably also arise as well in the reduction of some terminal electron acceptors employed by anaerobes: probably with NO3, possibly with CO2, and maybe with SO-. Although this theory is applicable to all life, the following comments are directed largely to mammalian aging, in which O2 is the main source of damaging free radical reactions, because of the importance attached to slowing the aging process in man.

  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Ageing

The  mechanisms  of  skin  aging  classically  have  been  divided  into  2  groups:  intrinsic aging,  which  is  the  natural  or  chronologic aging  of  skin,  and  extrinsic  aging,  which is influenced by physical and chemical factors. When discussing extrinsic facial aging in particular, solar  radiation  is  the  major  contributor  because  of  the extensive cumulative exposure to UV radiation over one’s lifetime.  However,  intrinsic  or  natural  mechanisms  also play a role in the way an individual ages, and both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms share molecular pathways. In this article, we will review several different aspects of facial aging with a focus on the mechanisms of skin aging. There  are  multiple  theories  on  the  mechanisms  of  skin aging, which include oxidative stress, loss of telomeres, mutations  in  mitochondrial  DNA  (mtDNA),  and  hormonal changes. In addition to the epidermis and dermis, changes to the subcutaneous fat, muscle, and bone of the face also contribute to an aged appearance.

 

  • Intrinsic skin ageing factors
  1. Ethnicity

The greatest effect of ethnicity on ageing is primarily related to differences in pigmentation. High levels of pigmentation are protective with regard to the cumulative effects of photoageing, with African-Americans showing little cutaneous difference between exposed and unexposed sites. In addition, if sensitivity is measured in terms of skin cancer incidence, skin cancer rates between Caucasian and African-Americans indicate that pigmentation provides a 500-fold level of protection from UV radiation. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma occur almost exclusively on sun-exposed skin of light-skinned people.

African-American skin is more compacted than Caucasian skin, as well as having a higher intercellular lipid content, which may contribute to more resistance to ageing. Wrinkling in Asians has been documented to occur later and with less severity than in Caucasians, although the reason for these observations was not explored.

  1. Anatomical variations

Huge variations in some skin parameters have been observed with respect to the body site studied, underscoring a need to standardize study site as well as ages compared in order to obtain meaningful results. There are large differences in skin thickness with respect to body site, ranging from < 0.5 mm on the eyelids to more than 6 mm on the soles of the feet. The decrease in epidermal thickness with ageing was found to be smaller at the temple than at the volar forearm, which may be the effect of cumulative photoageing. The lipid composition of human stratum corneum displays striking regional variation in both content and compositional profile. There is a much higher proportion of sphingolipids and cholesterol in palmoplantar stratum corneum than on extensor surfaces of the extremities, abdominal or facial stratum corneum. There is also an inverse relationship between the lipid weight percentage of a particular body site and its permeability .

  1. Hormonal changes in cutaneous tissues

The topic of hormonal changes in skin, primarily the effect of changes of oestrogen levels in the skin of women, has been reviewed recently and comprehensively by many competent authors and will therefore not be covered here, although we have addressed this topic in other publications. Vulvar skin, however, differs from that of the bulk of cutaneous epithelium in that skin in the vulvar area derives from three different embryonic layers. The cutaneous epithelia of the mons pubis, labia and clitoris originate from the embryonic ectoderm and exhibit a keratinized, stratified structure similar to the keratinized, stratified skin at other sites. The mucosa of the vulvar vestibule originates from the embryonic ectoderm and is non-keratinized. The vagina is derived from the embryonic mesoderm and is responsive to oestrogen cycling. The morphology and the physiology of the vulva and vagina thus undergo numerous specific changes associated with hormonal changes at menopause.

  • Extrinsic skin ageing factors
  1. Lifestyle influence

Skin is affected by ambient conditions such as temperature and humidity. An increase in skin temperature of 7–8 doubles the evaporative water loss. Low temperature stiffens skin and decreases evaporative water loss even with plenty of humidity in air, as structural proteins and lipids in the skin are critically dependent on temperature for appropriate conformation. Some medications affect the skin as well, particularly hypocholesterolemic drugs, which may induce abnormal increased desquamation. By far, however, the two greatest exogenous factors, both of which exact a heavy toll on skin, are smoking and exposure to UV light.

  1. Effects of smoking and nicotine

Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with elastosis in both sexes, and telangiectasia (red spots on skin) in men. Smoking causes skin damage primarily by decreasing capillary blood flow to the skin, which, in turn, creates oxygen and nutrient deprivation in cutaneous tissues. It has been shown that those who smoke have fewer collagen and elastin fibres in the dermis, which causes skin to become slack, hardened and less elastic. Smoke causes damage to collagen and elastin in lung tissue and may do so in skin as well. In addition, constriction of the vasculature by nicotine may contribute to wrinkling. A clear dose–response relationship between wrinkling and smoking has been identified, with smoking being a greater contributor to facial wrinkling than even sun exposure. Smoking was demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for premature wrinkling even when age, sun exposure and pigmentation were controlled. In addition, although hormone-replacement therapy was demonstrated to reverse wrinkling, the skin of long-time smokers did not respond. The relative risk for moderate-to-severe wrinkling for current smokers compared to that of life-long non-smokers was 2.57 with a CI of 1.83–3.06 and a P <  0.0005. Wrinkle scores were three times greater in smokers than in non-smokers, with a significant increase in the risk of wrinkles after 10 pack-years. Pack-years are calculated by multiplying the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day by the number of years the person has smoked. For example, 10 pack-years would define both as smoking one pack a day for 10 years, or two packs a day for 5 years. Smoking also increases free radical formation and is an important risk factor in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

 

  1. Exposure to UV light (photoageing)

Intrinsic changes occur in all skin as people age, including decreased turnover, chemical clearance, thickness and cellularity, thermoregulation, mechanical protection, immune responsiveness, sensory perception, sweat and sebum production and vascular reactivity. These changes represent a generalized atrophy with few structural alterations up to the age of 50, followed by slow deterioration. In contrast, solar exposure to UV light initiates a flurry of molecular and cellular responses that end with a rapid dynamic disorder.

The effects of sunlight on the skin are profound, and are estimated to account for up to 90% of visible skin ageing, particularly in those without the natural protection associated with higher levels of melanocytes in the skin. Sunlight is composed of three different types of radiation: UVC, UVB and UVA. UVC (100–290 nm) is largely blocked by the ozone layer and has little impact on skin. UVB (290–320 nm) penetrates only into the epidermis and is responsible for the erythema associated with a sunburn. UVA requires 1000-fold higher levels of radiation to cause sunburn, so it was long considered irrelevant to skin damage. It is now known that because it penetrates into the dermis, UVA may be responsible for most of the chronic skin damage associated with photoageing. Sunlight damages skin across a spectrum of physiological processes. UV radiation in the dermis causes a molecular chain reaction which ultimately results in the upregulation, in both dermis and epidermis, of matrix metalloproteinases which stimulate the production of collagenase, gelatinase and stromelysin-1 in both fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  • Ageing and the skin

Skin is the first body part to show the signs of age. Healthy age-related skin changes are inevitable and include thinning, sagging, wrinkling and the appearance of age spots, broken blood vessels and areas of dryness. Unhealthy skin changes, such as skin cancer, are also more common as weage and are usually made worse by exposure to the sun. Many people would like their skin to look as young as possible. Healthy lifestyle choices and good skin care can help you to minimise the signs of both healthy and unhealthy ageing.

Skin is unique in that is the organ that  shields the interior of our body from the environment and all types of environmental assaults including  solar damage, injury, pollution, and others.

Theory 1 – Oxidative Stress

This theory is more commonly known as the free radical theory of aging. All cells need energy to perform their particular function. This energy is a very “hot” process and uses free radical generation to burn fuel.  In this process, extra free radicals are created. These extra free radicals bounce around inside the cell,  damaging all cellular structures they contact. Over a lifetime, these free radical “hits” gradually accumulate leading to a physiologic decline in structure and function. We label this decline “aging.” Skin cells being metabolically active are subject to the same free radical damage as other cells of the body. In addition, skin cells are damaged by energy packets of solar rays termed photons. Photons are themselves very high-energy particles that are free radicals. Depending on whether the sunscreen chosen is physical or chemical, these solar free radicals can be blocked or neutralized. Antioxidants are helpful because they combine with free radicals and prevent the ongoing cascade of free radical damage. Only about one percent of oral antioxidants reach the skin so topical antioxidants are also critical.

Theory 2 – Inflammation

A certain amount of inflammation is required for health. Through its inflammatory response the body combats infections, clears away damaged tissue and heals sunburn and other oxidative processes. Excess inflammation results in accelerated rates of aging, scarring and destruction of normal tissue architecture. Free radical damage is well-known to trigger excess inflammation. The inflammatory response is elevated in those having higher levels of oxidative stress byproducts. Oleuropein is an anti-inflammatory substance found in the olive tree, Olea europaea. More antiinflammatory activity is contained within the olive leaf than in other parts such as olive oil.

Theory 3 – Glycation

The process of attaching a sugar to a protein is called glycation. Oxidative damage is an intracellular process, i.e. occurs inside the cell whereas glycation is an extracellular process and occurs outside the cell. Glycation occurs in protein-rich tissues that contain large amounts of the protein collagen. Collagen-rich tissues include the skin, blood vessels, joints and lens of the eye. Glycated collagen is damaged collagen and less able to respond to physical stress by stretching. Glycated collagen has much less deformability and resilience.

Theory 4 – DNA Damage

DNA is contained in the helical structure inside chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell. This DNA contains our genetic material and also directs the function of the cell in which it resides. A cell with damaged DNA cannot properly function and may even become cancerous. Increased DNA damage in skin occurs with photoaging and high oxidative stress. Not as much DNA damage is found with glycation because DNA is protected from glycation within the cell. Most glycation occurs extracellularly.

  • Degenerative Disorders Caused by Ageing

Aging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). There are almost 40 million people aged 65+ in the United States. Statistics predict that if you reach age 65 you can expect to live almost 20 more years. The average age of onset of PD is 60 years. If you are 85 years of age, you have an almost 50% risk of developing AD. The population of persons 85+ is projected to increase from 4.2 million in the year 2000 to 6.6 million in the year 2020. This suggests that these neurodegenerative diseases will reach a prevalence of epidemic proportions. The current dogma holds that cellular mechanisms that are associated with aging and those that are related to neuron degeneration in PD and AD are unrelated. However, more recent evidence suggests that normal aging and the degeneration of specific neuron populations in AD or PD may be linked by the same cellular mechanisms.

The degenerative diseases associated with aging include cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune-system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts. The functional degeneration of somatic cells during aging appears, in good part, to contribute to these diseases. The relationship between cancer and age in various

mammalian species illustrates this point. Cancer increases with about the fifth

power of age in both short-lived species, such as rats, and long-lived species, such

as humans. Thus a marked decrease in age-specific cancer rates has accompanied the marked increase in lifespan that has occurred in 60 million years of mammalian evolution; i.e., cancer rates are high in a 2-year-old rat, but low in a

2-year-old human. One important factor in longevity appears to be basal metabolic rate, which is about 7 times higher in a rat than in a human and which could markedly affect the level of endogenous oxidants and other mutagens produced as by-products of metabolism. The level of oxidative DNA d amage appears to be roughly related to metabolic rate in a number of mammalian species.

  1. Research Corrective or Active Skincare Products

After the discussion about aging and the occurrence, it turns out the aging process can be prevented using the type of corrective products and treatment with radio frequency.

Corrective is an anti-wringkle treatment inspired by the world’s most prestigious non-invasive medical aesthetic treatments. It is scientifically formulated for treating the deepest wringkles and expression lines, firms and rejuvenated the facial expression and the skin youthful appearance is enhanced. It combines up to nine active ingredients white proven efficiency, including internal tissue redensifers, skin fill-in subtances, neuro-inhibitor agentand state-of-the-art skin-lifting pepttides white pre-and post-synaptic activity. The ingredients are : hamamelis virginiana flower water, acetyl hexapeptide-30, camelia oleracea  extract, acytyl hexapeptide-B, dipeptide diaminobutyrayl benzylamide, oat kernel extract, peptapeptide-18, hyaluronic acid, acamela flower extract. Correctine is an exceptionally effective to medi-appereance treatment that is attractive both because of its result and its exclusive, sophiticated textures. This product for skin charateristics mature skin white deep wringkles and espresion lines. Corrective products : eye expresion line eraser, instan lip contour filler, expresion line serum, instant wringkle filler cream, expresion line eraser & wringkle filler profesional treatment.

Eye expresion line ereser formulated purpose smooth out deep wrikles and expression line around the eye countur area. Combine up to seven active ingredients with proven effeciency, including internal tissue redensifying agent, skin filling subtance, neural inhibitor agent and demo-lifting peptides with pre-and post-synaptic activity, use after cleansing and toning, apply a thin layer of thr eye expression line eraser with a soft, inside-out massage, emphasizing on the wringkles. Instan lip contour filler formulated for deep wringkles and expression lines around the lip contour. Combines up to seven active ingredients with proven effciency, including internal tissue redensifying agents, skin filling subtances, neural inhibitor agents and demi-lifting peptides with pre-and post-synaptic activity, use after cleansing and toning, apply instant lip contour filler around the lips, emphasizing on the expression line and wringkles. Expression line serum formulated for smoothing out deep wringkles and expresion lines. Combine up to seven active ingradients with proven efficiency, including internal tissue redensifying agents, skin filling subtaces, neural inhibitor agents and demo-lifting peptides with pre-and post-synaptic activity, use after cleansing and toning, spread a few drops of the expression line serum over the face, neck and decollete, with gentle circular movement, paying particular attention to wringkle. Instan wringkle filler cream formulated for smoothing out deep wringkles and expresion lines. Combine up to seven active ingradients with proven efficiency, including internal tissue redensifying agents, skin filling subtaces, neural inhibitor agents and demo-lifting peptides with pre-and post-synaptic activity, use after cleansing and toning, and applying expression line serum apply athin layer of the instant wringkle filler cream over the face, neck and decollete with gentle massage movement until it is completely absorbed. Corrective profesional pack anti ageing profesional treatment inspired by the worlds most prestigius non-invasive medical aesthetic treatments.it is scientifically formulated for treating the deepest wringkles wringkls and expression line, firm and rejuvenates the facial expression and skins youthful appearance is echanced. Fill-in technique and application subtance help to relax the skins micro-contractures an an intense smothing effect is produced on the deepest wringkles. As a result, these wringkles are reduced gradually and naturallyafter the few sessions.

  1. Research Radio Frequency Treatment

Treatment with the latest technology is a promising face look more toned without having to go through surgery though. In contrast with Botox, Radio Frequency RF or commonly abbreviated does not require injections at all. On the Radio Frequency treatment, the skin is heated to 40 degrees and the heat is expected to be able to stimulate the formation of collagen under the skin. Now the formation of collagen under the skin is able to make the face feels tighter. In addition to stimulating collagen formation, heat of RF devices also were able to burn fat, This is why RF also can be used all over the body for slimming. However, not only in a one-time treatment. Should be repeated once a week within 4-8 times depending on the desired area of treatment.

Treatment On Face

If it could face up to four times while the body can be up to 8 times the treatment for optimal results, the period of 2 weeks. With the stimulation of collagen formation of Radio Frequency treatment, the wrinkles will be obscured. Not only that, cheek area could also be made more gaunt with tmenggunakan tool that delivers Multipolar Radio Frequency and Magnetic pulses to the skin. In particular, this frequency radio is designed as the latest antiaging treatments that can also produce skin that feels more supple and younger looking. After treatment is completed, the patient was immediately able to see a change in the desired area of the face. To show changes in patients, we usually do the treatment on one side first so that it can be compared the difference. Will be directly visible firming skin and face look more gaunt. In total, these changes can be directly visible to 60% for Radio Frequency treatment of this.

In the Body Care

For areas of the body, treatment of Radio Frequency can be done in the area of the abdomen, thighs, and arms. This treatment can be used for skin that has been slack and stretch marks or cellulite scars. RF treatment can help reduce the appearance of stretch marks like. It is not 100%, but seen no improvement there. If the area of the arm can be made much faster. With the burning of fat, what does it mean body weight was also reduced? Automatic yes, but it is not significant. Surely this must collaborate with diet and exercise routine so that the result is more optimal. Fat burning with this treatment is only done on the fat that is close to the skin surface. So, if it is not accompanied by additional exercise, the result would look tight course, but not optimal. For the abdominal area, this treatment can be done to tighten the area. However, there must be a repetition, when once it is not too visible results. Abdominal circumference can be reduced 2-3 centimeters with repetition of treatment up to 8 times.

Treatment Procedures

Before the treatment is done, the target area will be cleaned first. For example, areas of the face with a facial cleanser. Then to overcome not comfortable, patients will also be anaesthetized topical for half an hour before the RF. Furthermore, the action was carried out using a special tool with a tip that is designed to stimulate the production of collagen. Once completed, the area will be immediately cleaned from the remnants of treatment. How long this will last? The duration of action will depend on the intended area. For facial area usually takes for half an hour. If for the agency can take 1-2 hours depending on the area that will be taken. Securities to be received by the patient usually only redness that will last approximately one hour. Redness effect is caused because there is a heating process is done. However, nobody really the pain of this treatment, will only feel warm just in the skin. After that the patient can go as usual.

The recommended age

Actually RF is safe to do so since the age of 20 years and up to 60 years. However, there are some conditions that are not allowed to do this treatment, such as pregnant and lactating. Prior to treatment the RF, will be given in advance to inform the patient concerned. We will explain in advance about the procedure to be performed and also about the possible effects that will result afterwards. Given Radio Frequency is indeed focused on the formation of collagen with a tightening effect on the skin, in fact it will also affect the results of the face will look brighter.

Anti-Aging Treatments

KONSULTASI & PEMESANAN HUBUNGI

Blackberry ID: 5F31BC23 CONSULTATION & BUYING

There are many treatments available to combat the aging effects of the sun, from creams to peels to lasers. Plus, reducing the signs of sun damage can reduce your risk of developing skin cancer.

The sun and the years take their toll on your skin. Photoaging is often the first sign that your skin has been damaged, but such repeated exposure can also lead to skin cancer. Luckily, many of the treatments for photoaging not only restore skin’s youthful appearance, they also reduce your risk for developing skin cancers and precancers.

Prevention
If you don’t wear a sunscreen every day, today is the day to start. Daily application of sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher- whether on its own, or in a moisturizer – will prevent additional damage to your skin. Also, studies have shown that daily use of sunscreen can actually reduce the existing number of actinic keratoses – abnormal skin eruptions, or precancers, that can lead to skin cancer.

Retinoids
Retinoids have been a breakthrough discovery for the treatment of photoaged skin. Synthetic derivatives of Vitamin A, they can improve discoloration of the skin, degeneration of elastic tissue, and fine wrinkling by enhancing naturally occurring production of collagen and elastic fibers. In addition to giving skin back its youthful appearance, retinoids can inhibit tumor growth, decrease inflammation, and enhance the immune system. Continuing use of retinoids can reduce the number and size of actinic keratoses. Currently, two retinoids are available in the US for treatment of photoaging: tretinoin (2) and tazarotene. Note that retinoids can irritate the skin and cause dryness and photosensitivity – an extreme sensitivity to the sun. They are available by prescription only.

Lasers
Lasers are used to vaporize the skin’s sun-damaged top layer, leaving a softer, smoother skin surface with less pronounced wrinkles. With their pinpoint accuracy, lasers are ideal for sensitive skin areas such as around the eyes. The treatment can result in tenderness, scarring, redness and swelling that can last for several weeks while the new skin grows. Darker-skinned individuals can experience permanent loss of pigmentation.

Lasers can be used for treatment of actinic keratoses, as well.

A new technology called IPL (intense pulsed light) is a non-skin-removing technique (“non-ablative”) that offers patients a softening of lines and shallow wrinkles, fading of some scars, removal of broken capillaries, and stimulation of new collagen growth quickly. After-effects can include swelling, redness, blotchiness, and darkening of pigmented areas. Usually several sessions are needed for optimal results, and the full effects of the treatments may not be visible for up to six months after the final treatment.

Chemical peels
Chemical peels are often used to rejuvenate the skin, reduce wrinkles, and treat actinic keratoses. A doctor removes layers of skin with a mild acid solution. Depending on the damage, a light, medium, or deep peel is used. After the skin heals, a smoother, younger-looking outer layer forms. Light peels usually result in only a slight redness and photosensitivity, but deeper peels can result in significant swelling, redness, and photosensitivity that lasts for several weeks.

Dermabrasion
Dermabrasion uses a small high-speed, rotating metal brush or file to abrade the upper layers of the skin and smooth out surface irregularities. It is used, often with long-lasting results, for treatment of substantial wrinkling and leathering from the sun, pigmentation problems, and acne scars. Either local or general anesthetic is used during the procedure. Redness, swelling and pain are typical after treatment. Healing can take from 7 to 14 days.

For mild to moderate photoaging, a variation of the technique known as microdermabrasion uses tiny particles that pass through a vacuum tube to gently scrape away aging skin and stimulate new cell growth. Mild redness is typically the only side effect.

Botox
Almost 20 years have passed since the first injections of botulinum toxin A were done for frown lines between the eyebrows. Since then, it has become one of the most popular cosmetic procedures in the US. When skin loses its elasticity, facial wrinkles develop and form lines – like the pleats of an accordion. Botox works by weakening or temporarily paralyzing the muscles and smoothing the wrinkle away.

Botox is currently approved by the FDA only for the frown lines between the eyebrows. However, it is used “off-label” (without FDA approval) for horizontal forehead lines, crow’s feet around the eyes, vertical lip lines and neck banding. Side effects are usually mild to moderate, and can include bruising around the injection area, headache and muscle weakness. Botox does not reduce the incidence of skin cancer. It is a cosmetic procedure only.

Fillers
Filling substances are injected under facial skin to round out contours and correct wrinkles, furrows and hollows. A number of substances are currently used in the US as fillers, including bovine collagen, polymer implants, and the patient’s own (autologous) fat. To maintain the effects of bovine collagen and autologous fat, the procedure needs to be repeated periodically. Some patients are allergic to fillers, and a dermatologist should perform an allergy test before treatment. Side effects can include redness, swelling, bruising, and moderate pain, depending on the type of filler used.

Many of these treatments can be used in conjunction with one another to produce younger-looking skin and reduce the risk of skin cancer. It is important to consult with a licensed dermatologist to discuss treatment options, as many of these treatments can cause damage in inexperienced hands.

Anti-Aging Facts Online

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We all want to look and feel young.

It is never too early to develop habits that will slow the aging process. Anti-aging steps are simply the use and development of good lifestyle habits to maintain health and prevent disease. Nutrition, exercise, and attitude all play a role at keeping the aging process a positive one.

Learn How to Slow the Aging Process With Simple Steps Copyright 2008, Anti-aging Facts Online – All rights reserved

Can We Really Defy Aging?

Most researchers today agree that we can defy aging by revising the typical Western diet and minimizing damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals in the body can damage healthy cells and lead to a variety of life shortening illnesses such as high blood pressure, diabetes and cancer. So, one of the best anti-aging principles is to counteract free radicals and reduce the damage that they do. How do we do this? Consume as many dietary anti-oxidants as possible to protect the body against the harmful effects of free radicals. Antioxidants are vital nutrients for defying aging and are included in both supplements and foods. Vitamin C & vitamin E are crucial for maintaining health and increasing longevity. Even the Journal of American Medical Association published a study explaining how antioxidant vitamins can have a profound effect on slowing the progression of coronary heart disease. Many studies have proven that Vitamin E is a proven antioxidant that staves off atherosclerosis, cancer, and protection of eyesight. Where do we find naturally occuring antioxidants? Many vegetables and fruits contain powerful antioxidants. But, one of the best sources is green tea which contains polyphenols, an antioxidant that is excellent for promoting overall health. Black tea is nearly as healthful and both teas protect the heart and inhibit cancer. Green tea has been shown to reduce inflammation from arthritis, and promote healthier gums and teeth. Another powerful antioxidant packed full of powerful bioflavonoids is garlic, which helps lower the risk for heart disease. A major age-defying practice is exercise. Moderate exercise, done regularly, can boost immunity, improve circulation, and moderate blood sugar levels. Walking, stretching, and weight training are beneficial for all ages and studies show that exercise also improves mental fitness. So, what makes us age? Life shortening habits such as too much sugar and refined carbohydrates and lack of exercise are the major factors that send us in the direction of aging, followed by serious symptoms of disease. Can we really defy aging? The answer is a resounding “yes”. Get started now eating right and exercising for a longer, healthier life.

10 Tips For Protecting Your Youth

Follow these simple tips to protect your youth and feel healthier. Add super foods to your diet for healthy intestines. They are full of important vitamins such as vitamins A, C, and E, and high in fiber. High fiber foods protect the intestines and are often passed over as unimportant in a healthy diet. What are the top 10 super foods? Cooked bulgur wheat, black-eyed peas, kidney beans, acorn squash, wheat germ, spinach, broccoli, dry roasted sunflower seeds, whole wheat bread, and baked sweet potatoes. These super foods can also help to lower cholesterol levels. Consume generous amounts of water daily. Make your goal eight glasses a day, or more if your are at a high activity level. Boost your immunity with vitamins and minerals. The top choices are vitamins A, C, and all B vitamins including biotin, and folic acid. Immune boosting minerals are zinc, copper, iron, and selenium. Accessorize your diet for healthy benefits to your heart and overall health. Replace butter with olive oil which contains mono-unsaturated fats that lower bad cholesterol levels. Indulge in healthy teas, either green or black, to combat cholesterol and cancer. They contain anti-oxidants, an important defense for overall health. Season with garlic, a powerful food that also lowers cholesterol and helps prevent heart attacks. Finally, sip a little wine, preferably red, to lower your heart disease risk. Stay slim by balancing calories in and calories out. You can lower your risk for many life-shortening diseases by staying trim. Find an activity that you enjoy and do it 3-5 times a week. Try walking, golfing, dancing, or bowling to burn those extra calories. Get out of the grasp of nicotine. Ditch the cigarettes and cigars that contain over 65 cancer causing substances Pamper your heart to lower your risk of coronary disease and slow down the aging process. The bad news is that heart disease is the leading cause of death in the US. The good news is that heart health is almost completely controllable by choices that we make. The most basic advice is to quit smoking, choose a low fat diet, exercise, and lose extra pounds. For extra coronary benefit, eat garlic and take vitamin E supplements. With doctor approval, consider taking a daily baby aspirin to reduce the chance of clotting. Also, keep watch on blood sugar levels for additional heart protection. Don’t forget to protect yourself from memory loss. The brain works best when you get plenty of sleep, preferable 6-8 hours a day. Practice memorizing to help keep your mind sharp. Keep distractions at a minimum by organizing your home. Reduce stress because stress causes a rise in cortisol levels which negatively effects your ability to recall. Try planning ahead, listening to soothing music, spending time with a friend, or watching a funny movie for benefits to your memory. Keep your muscles limber and flexible to reduce chronic pain. Regular exercise builds muscle tone, reducing the wear and tear from everyday chores. Take stretch breaks throughout the day to help counteract stiffness and try yoga to eliminate stiff muscles and increase blood flow throughout the body. Follow these simple anti-aging tips for whole body protection against life shortening diseases. You’ll enjoy better health, more energy, and be on track for a long, and happy life.